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Injector Cylinder #4 Fault (Diagnostic Code: SPN 654 - FMI 11)

SPN 651 FMI 11 - Injector Cylinder #1 Fault
SPN 652 FMI 11 - Injector Cylinder #2 Fault
SPN 653 FMI 11 - Injector Cylinder #3 Fault
SPN 654 FMI 11 - Injector Cylinder #4 Fault
SPN 655 FMI 11 - Injector Cylinder #5 Fault
SPN 656 FMI 11 - Injector Cylinder #6 Fault

Figure 1.1 - SPN 654 FMI 11

#Conditions Which Generate This Code
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) is attempting to operate the Injector. The ECM detects an open circuit or a short circuit in the circuit for the Injector.

If the cause of the diagnostic code is a problem in the common wire, two Cylinders will be affected because of the shared common wire for the Injectors.

#System Response
The ECM will log the diagnostic code. The ECM will continue to attempt to operate the Injector after the code has been logged.

The injector may not operate while the condition exists.
  • Engine misfires
  • Low power

#Troubleshooting
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Injector Solenoid Circuit - Test. Use this procedure to troubleshoot any suspected problems with the Fuel Injectors. This procedure covers the following diagnostic codes:
  • 1-11 Injector Cylinder #1 fault
  • 2-11 Injector Cylinder #2 fault
  • 3-11 Injector Cylinder #3 fault
  • 4-11 Injector Cylinder #4 fault
  • 5-11 Injector Cylinder #5 fault
  • 6-11 Injector Cylinder #6 fault

#System Operation Description
Perform this procedure under conditions that are identical to the conditions that exist when the problem occurs. Typically, problems with the Injector Solenoid occur when the Engine is warmed up and/or when the Engine is under vibration (heavy loads).

The Engine has Electronic Unit Injectors that are mechanically actuated and electronically energized. The Electronic Control Module (ECM) sends a 105 volt pulse to each Injector Solenoid. The pulse is sent at the proper time and at the correct duration for a given engine load and speed. The Solenoid is mounted on top of the Fuel Injector body. The 105 volt pulse can be individually cut out to aid in troubleshooting misfire problems.

If an open is detected in the Solenoid circuit, a diagnostic code is generated. The ECM continues to try to fire the Injector. If a short is detected, a diagnostic code is generated. The ECM will disable the Solenoid circuit.

The ECM will then enable the Solenoid. If the short circuit remains this sequence of events will be repeated until the problem is corrected.
Figure 1.2 (Schematic for Injectors/ C-15)

The Injector codes must be programmed into the ECM. The Injector code is a four digit number (last four digits of the serial number for the Injector) that is found on each of the unit Injectors. The ECM uses this number to compensate for manufacturing variations between individual Injectors. If you replace any of the unit Injectors, you must reprogram the code for the new Injectors. Also, if you replace the ECM, you must reprogram all of the Injector codes. The ECM will generate a 268-02 Check Programmable Parameters if the Injector codes have not been programmed. Read More: Injector Codes Calibration using Caterpillar ET Software
Figure 1.3 - Injector Codes Calibration

Test Step 1. Inspect Electrical Connectors and Wiring
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
B. Thoroughly inspect J2/P2 ECM Connector and J300/P300 Valve cover connector. Ensure that the locking tabs for the valve cover connector are securely locked.
C. Perform a 45 N (10 lb) pull test on each of the wires in the ECM connectors and in the valve cover connector that are associated with Injector Solenoids.
D. Check the allen head screw on the ECM connectors for the proper torque.
E. Check the harness and wiring for abrasions and for pinch points from the valve cover to the ECM.
Expected Result: All connectors, pins, and sockets are completely coupled and/or inserted. The harness and wiring are free of corrosion, of abrasion, and of pinch points.

Test Step 2. Check for Active/ Logged Diagnostic Codes
A. Connect the Caterpillar Electronic Technician (Cat ET) to the service tool connector. Read More: How to Connecting Caterpillar ET Software to the ECM.
B. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.
C. Monitor the " Active/ Logged Diagnostic Codes" screen on Cat ET.
Figure 1.4 - Cylinder Injector #1-6 (Other Failure Mode)

Test Step 3. Check the Variation of the Injectors Between Each of the Cylinders
A. Start the Engine.
B. Allow the engine to warm up to normal operating temperature (approx. 77 °C/ 171 °F).
C. After the engine is warmed to operating temperature, access the "Cylinder Cutout Test" on Cat ET. Read More: Cylinder Cutout Test using Caterpillar ET Software.
D. Enable the cooling fan, if the fan is not controlled by the ECM. If the ECM controls the cooling fan, the cooling fan will start automatically when the test begins.
E. Shut off all parasitic loads such as the air conditioning and the air compressors which could affect the results of the test.
F. Select the start button at the bottom of the screen for the "Cylinder Cutout Test".
G. Follow the instructions that are provided in the "Cylinder Cutout Test". The cylinder cutout tests are interactive so the procedure is guided to the finish.
Expected Result: All cylinders are within specifications.
Figure 1.5 - Cylinder Cutout

Test Step 4. Use the Injector Solenoid Test to Check the Operation of the Injector Solenoids
A. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.
B. Access the "Injector Solenoid Test" on Cat ET. Read More: Injector Solenoid Test using Caterpillar ET Software.
C. Activate the test.
D. As each Solenoid is energized by the ECM, an audible click can be heard at the valve cover. Listen for a click at each valve cover. A black square will appear over the Cylinder number when the Cylinder is being fired.
E. Perform the Injector Solenoid Test at least two times.
Expected Result: All cylinders indicate "OK".
Figure 1.6 - Injector Solenoid Test

Test Step 5. Use the Injector Solenoid Test to Check for Shorts in the Engine Wiring Harness
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. A strong electrical shock hazard is present if the keyswitch is not turned to the OFF position.
B. Disconnect the J300/P300 (valve cover connector).
C. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.
D. Perform the Injector Solenoid Test at least two times.
Expected Result: All cylinders indicate "Open".
Figure 1.7 - Not OK (*Open)

Test Step 6. Use the Injector Solenoid Test to Check for Opens in the Engine Wiring Harness
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. A strong electrical shock hazard is present if the keyswitch is not turned to the OFF position.
B. Disconnect the J300/P300 valve cover connector at the valve cover base.
C. Fabricate a jumper wire.
D. Insert one end of the jumper wire into the connector socket for supply wire of the problem Injector. Insert the other end of the jumper wire into the appropriate socket for the suspect Injector in the P300 valve cover connector. For example, if Injector 1 is the problem Injector, insert the jumper in terminal 1 (Injector Cylinder 1) and in terminal 12 (Injector Common Cylinders 1&2) of the P300 valve cover connector.
Figure 1.8 - Jumper Wire (Cylinder #1)

E. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.
F. Perform the Injector Solenoid Test at least two times.
G. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
H. Repeat this test for each suspect Injector. Ensure that the Injector Solenoid Test is disabled before handling the jumper wires.
Expected Result: Cat ET displays "Short" for the cylinder with the jumper wire. If no fault/ short, will displays "OK".
Figure 1.9 - Cylinder 1 (OK)

Test Step 7. Use the Injector Solenoid Test to Check the ECM for Short Circuits
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. A strong electrical shock hazard is present if the keyswitch is not turned to the OFF position.
B. Disconnect the J2/P2 ECM connector from the ECM and check for evidence of moisture.
C. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.
D. Perform the Injector Solenoid Test at least two times.
Expected Result: All Cylinders indicate "Open" when the P2 ECM connector is disconnected from the ECM. Note: When the engine harness is disconnected all of the diagnostic codes for supply voltage to the sensors will be active. This is normal. Clear all of these diagnostic codes after completing this test step.

Test Step 8. Check The Injector Harness Under the Valve Cover
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. A strong electrical shock hazard is present if the keyswitch is not turned to the OFF position.
B. Remove the valve cover.
C. Disconnect the harness from the problem Injector. Disconnect the harness from the other Injector that has the same supply line.
D. Thoroughly clean the terminals of both Injectors and of the harness.
E. Exchange the harness between the two Injectors that share the supply line.
F. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.
G. Perform the Injector Solenoid Test at least two times.
Figure 2.1 - Injector 3 & 4 Not OK (*Open)
Expected Result: Exchanging the harness between the two Injectors caused the problem to move to the other Injector on Cat ET.
OK - Cat ET indicates that the problem has moved. Replace the faulty Injector. Restore the wiring to the proper Injectors. Verify that the repair eliminates the problem.
Not OK - Cat ET still indicates that the problem is with the original Injector. Replace the Injector harness under the valve cover. Verify that the repair eliminates the problem.

Test Step 9. Check For a Short Circuit in the Supply Line to the Engine
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. A strong electrical shock hazard is present if the keyswitch is not turned to the OFF position.
B. Disconnect the J2/P2 ECM connector.
C. Locate the supply line for the problem Injector in the P2 connector. Measure the resistance from the terminal to the engine ground stud connection.
Expected Result: The multimeter indicates that the resistance is greater than 5 Ohms.
Not OK - The harness is shorted to ground. Replace the Injector harness under the valve cover. Verify that the repair eliminates the problem.


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